Environmental seasonality is a critical factor in structuring polar marine ecosystems. The extensive data now available on the lipids of Arctic and Antarctic euphausiids show that all species are characterised by a seasonally high lipid content. and neutral lipids. whether wax esters or triacylglycerols, are primarily accumulated for reproduction. The Arctic Thysanoessa inermis and the Antarctic Euphausia crystallorophias contain high levels of wax esters and higher concentrations of 18:4(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) and a lower ratio of 18:1(n-9)/(n-7) fatty acids in their neutral lipids than the Arctic Thysanoessa raschii and the Antarctic Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia superba. Large amounts of phytol in the lipids of T. raschii and E. crystallorophias during winter suggest the ingestion of decaying algae originating in sedimenting material or in sea ice. Thysanoessa raschii, T. macrura, and E. superba have a high ratio of 18:1(n-9)/(n-7) fatty acids, indicating animal carnivory. We conclude that T. inermis and E. crystallorophias are true high polar herbivores. while T. raschii. T. macrura. and E. superba are omnivores with a more boreal distribution. The Arctic species Thysanoessa longicaudata and Meganyctiphanes norvegica are carnivores feeding on Calanus, as indicated by high amounts of 20:1(n-9) and 22:1(n-11) fatty acids.
Back to overview,Home naval-today HMS Richmond Pays Visit to Goa, India View post tag: India Authorities View post tag: Goa HMS Richmond Pays Visit to Goa, India View post tag: asia September 29, 2015 View post tag: HMS Richmond Share this article In an effort to strengthen ties between UK and India, HMS Richmond, Royal Navy’s Type 23 frigate, is visiting Goa from September 27 to October 01. Currently moored at Goa’s Mormugao Port Trust, HMS Richmond has been operating in the Arabian Sea to counter heroin smuggling; these smugglers aim to reach the western shores by passing through the African countries.HMS Richmond has been on deployment for the last nine months. After it departs Goa, Richmond will be undertaking Humanitarian and Disaster Relief Operations during its transit back to England.[mappress mapid=”17036″]Image: Royal Navy